Friday, August 14, 2009

Bible Study: Taking A Stand - Daniel - Chapter 11

The kings of the North and South are so named because of their geographic relationship to Israel. Egypt was South. Syria and Babylon were North.

Kings of the North
Seleucid Dynasty

Daniel 11:5 – not referenced Seleucus I Nicator 312-281 BC
Not referenced Antiochus I Soter 281-262 BC
Daniel 11:6 Antiochus II Theos 262-246 BC
Daniel 11:7-9 Seleucus II Callinicus 246-227 BC
Daniel 11:10 Seleucus III Soter 227-223 BC
Daniel 11:10-11, 13, 15-19 Antiochus III the Great 223-187 BC
Daniel 11:20 Seleucus IV Philopater 187-176 BC
Daniel 11:21-32 Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175-163 BC

Kings of the South
Ptolemaic Dynasty

Daniel 11:5 Ptolemy I Soter 323-285 BC
Daniel 11:5-6 Ptolemy II 285-246 BC
Daniel 11:7-10 Ptolemy III 246-221 BC
Daniel 11:11-12 Ptolemy IV Philopator 221-204 BC
Daniel 11:13-19 Ptolemy V Epiphanes 204-181 BC
Daniel 11:20-32 Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-145 BC

11:1 – any idea why verse 1 would be the last sentence and closed parenthesis that began in 10:21? I think it ties chapter 10 to chapter 11 and emphasizes that it is a continuation of the same encounter.

11:1-20 – shows the conflict between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids over control of Palestine in 300-200 BC. (Life App SB)

11:2 – Babylon was defeated by Medo-Persia, Medo-Persia was defeated by Greece under Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, the empire was divided into 4 parts. The Ptolemies gained control of the southern part of Palestine, and the Seleucids gained control of the northern part of Palestine. (Life App SB)

“three more kings” – Cambyses (530-522 BC), Smerdis (pseudo-Smerdis or Guamata, 522 BC), Darius I Hystaspes (522-486 BC). (Daniel – Beth Moore: New American Commentary – Miller)

“then a fourth” – “Xerxes I (486-465 BC) is clearly identified as the fourth king by the description of his great wealth and expedition against Greece…” The three kings that ruled between Cyrus and Xerxes I (listed above) are a matter of historical record. (Daniel – Beth Moore: New American Commentary – Miller) This is Esther’s Xerxes.

The fourth Persian king may have been Ahasuerus I (486-465 BC), who launched an all-out effort against Greece in 480 BC (see Esther 1:1). (Life App SB)

11:3 – this “mighty king” was Alexander the Great. (Life App SB)

KOTN Seleucus I Nicator (312-281) Antiochus ! Soter (281-262) Antiochus II Theos (262-246) Seleucus II Callinicus (246-227) Seleucus III Soter (227-223) Antichus III the Great (223-187) Seleucus IV Philopater (187-176) Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163)
KOTS Ptolemy I Soter (323-285) Ptolemy II (285-246) Ptolemy III (246-221) Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204) Ptolemy V Ephiphanes (204-181) Ptolemy VI Philomentor (180-145)

11:5 – king of the South – Ptolemy I Soter (323-285 BC). This is the General that served under Alexander the Great. See Wikipedia notes in Daniel Chapter 8.

11:6 – king of the South – Ptolemy II (285-246 BC).

11:6-7 – “The daughter of the king of the South will go to the king of the North to make an alliance…” - Ptolemy II of Egypt (“the South”) gave his daughter, Berenice in marriage to Antiochus II of Syria (“the North”) to finalize a peace treaty between them. “…but she will not retain her power…” - Berenice was murdered by Laodice, Antiochus II’s former wife. “One from her family line will arise to take her place. He will attack the forces of the king of the North and enter his fortress; he will fight against them and be victorious.” - Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III ascended to the throne and declared war on the Seleucids to avenge his sister’s murder. (Life App SB)

“Through marriage to his daughter, Berenice, Ptolemy II offered an alliance to Seleucid’s grandson Antiochus II (”the king of the North”). To marry Berenice, Antiochus II had to divorce his wife, Laodice. Later, the scorned Laodice had Berenice, her son, and Antiochus II murdered. Then she put her son, Seleucus II, on the throne.

“Verses 7-9 foresee the rest of the story. Berenice’s brother (“one of the descendants of her line” [AKA: Ptolemy III]) avenged her death by attacking Seleucus II (“the king of the North”). He killed Laodice and took back to Egypt ‘their metal images and their precious vessels of silver and gold.’ Later, Seleucus II tried to retaliate, but he failed. He ‘enter[ed] the realm of the king of the South,’ but ‘return[ed] to his own land.” (Daniel - Beth Moore: God’s Pattern for the Future by Chuck Swindoll)

11:7-8 – king of the South – Ptolemy III (246-221 BC)

11:7-9 – KOTN = Seleucus II (according to the table at the beginning of the chapter). (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:9-11 – the king of Syria (“the North”) was Seleucus II, and the king of Egypt (“the South”) was Ptolemy IV. (Life App SB) – I disagree with this. According to the articles below, these kings didn’t reign at the same time. The kings mentioned in these verses would be Seleucus II and Ptolemy III, since they reigned during the same time. Antiochus III (“the North”) attacked Ptolemy IV (“the South”) and retreated in defeat as scripture says. See the Battle of Raphia.

11:10 – KOTN = Seleucus III (according to the table at the beginning of the chapter). (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:10-11, 13, 15-19 – KOTN = Antiochus III (according to the table at the beginning of the chapter). (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:11 – KOTS = Ptolemy IV.

11:13 – the king of the North may have been Antiochus III (the Great). (Life App SB) – Does this verse speak of the Battle of Panium? If so, the KOTS was Ptolemy V.

11:17 – the Invader, Antiochus III, tried to bring peace between Syria and Egypt by having his daughter marry Ptolemy V, but his plan failed. (Life App SB)

11:20 – “His successor will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor.” - Antiochus III was succeeded by Seleucus IV. He sent Heliodorus to collect money from the temple treasury in Jerusalem. (Life App SB)

KOTS = Either Ptolemy V or VI since these are the kings that reigned during the time of Seleucus IV. I believe Ptolemy V because his predecessor died during an attempt to rob a temple which would support the idea that the kingdom was “broke”, so Ptolemy V would try to collect taxes ASAP.

11:21 – Seleucus IV was succeeded by his brother, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who found favor with the Romans. (Life App SB)

Antiochus IV – see wikipedia notes in Daniel 8.

11:21-35 – describes the persecution of Israel under Antiochus IV Epiphanes. (Life App SB)

11:22 – “force of a flood” refers to the way all opposition against Antiochus IV will be broken. The prince of the covenant may be the high priest Onias III, who was assassinated by Menelaus in 170 BC. (Life App SB)

11:27 – these two kings were probably Antiochus IV and Ptolemy VI. (Life App SB)

11:28 – his heart will be set against the holy covenant – Antiochus “purposed in his heart and made up his mind to be against anything related to the covenant relationship between the Jews and their God.” (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:29-31 – Antiochus IV would again invade the South, but enemy ships would cause him to retreat. On his way back, he plundered Jerusalem, desecrated the temple (by sacrificing pigs on an altar erected in honor to Zeus), and stopped the Jews’ daily sacrifices. To sacrifice a pig in the temple was the worst insult an enemy could level against the Jews. This happened in 168-167 BC. (Life App SB)

11:31 – see Romans 12:1 – we are living sacrifices! If we miss the sacrificial life, we will miss our calling. Selfishness, which our culture encourages, is deadly to the sacrificial life. See 2 Timothy for some selfish characteristics. (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:32 – the people who know their God – if you want to be onto the enemy’s secret schemes, you only need to KNOW YOUR GOD! See Isaiah 42:6 – hold onto God. (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:33-34 – Those who teach will face persecution. Difficult times remind us of our weaknesses and inability to cope. We look for answers, leadership, and direction. During times like these, God’s Word begins to interest even those who would never look at it. We should be ready to share God’s Word at times like these. We should also be prepared to be rejected and persecuted because of it. (Life App SB)

11:33-35 – “fall” and “stumble” – each occurrence is the same Hebrew word, meaning “to totter, stumble, stagger, fall, be overthrown, to faint, become weak.” (Daniel – Beth Moore: Word Study OT) Wise people don’t stumble, but loving ones can. See 2 Corinthians 11:2-3. (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:34 – the insincere will join them – see Ezra 4:1-5 – “if the enemy can’t beat us, he will join us.” He will infiltrate our groups and destroy from within. We must be wise and discerning, not suspicious and hard-hearted.

11:35 – describes a time when even wise believers may fall. If we persevere through these experiences, we will be refined in the process. Therefore, we should see trials as opportunities to strengthen our faith. This “fall” could come in the following ways: (Life App SB)

1. falling into sin
2. losing faith
3. following false teaching
4. experiencing suffering and martyrdom

11:36 – unheard-of things – “astounding, shocking, or unbelievable things.” (Daniel – Beth Moore: Miller – New American Commentary)

“until the time of wrath is completed” – “This vile king’s rule will not last a millisecond past God’s predetermined time. Satan will not almost win. He will be unleashed only as far as the leash God gives him. At no time will God be out of control.” (Daniel – Beth Moore)

11:36-45 – this king is the antichrist, not Antiochus IV. He is the king of the North. Verse 40 clearly states that both the king of the North and the king of the South come against this king at the time of the end.

11:37 – “he will show no regard for the gods of his fathers…” – the “Antichrist will reject whatever religion is practiced by his ancestors. If this individual rises from the peoples of ancient Rome (which chapters 7 and 9 indicate), his family religion would probably be some form of Christianity.” (Daniel – Beth Moore: Miller – New American Commentary)

11:40 – the prophecy shifts to the end times, Antiochus IV fades from view and the antichrist becomes the center of attention. (Life App SB)

11:40-41 – See Revelation 12:14-16. Notice especially, “he…will sweep through them like a flood.” Revelation 12:15 says, “Then from his mouth the serpent spewed water like a river to overtake the woman and sweep her away with the torrent.” The woman symbolizes Israel, and this is almost an exact quote.

11:45 – the glorious holy mountain is Mount Zion or the city of Jerusalem. (Life App SB)

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